Further Reading

A. State of the environment

The most accessible immediate source materials on the state of the environment are the publications of the Worldwatch Institute, especially its two series State of the World and Vital Signs. More specialist material is advertised on the Institute's web site (<http://www.worldwatch.org>) and in the endnotes of Worldwatch publications. Another major source of environmental data is World Resources, published every two years by the United Nations Environment Program and other UN institutions.

Up to date information on the environment can be found in a myriad of sources, especially on the World Wide Web. Especially worth consulting are Rachel's Health and Environment Weekly at <http://www.rachel.org> and the Environmental Organisations Web Directory at <http://www.webdirectory.com>.

Newspapers and journals include Australia's Green Left Weekly, the New Internationalist, The Ecologist and Capitalism, Nature, Socialism.

B. Sources of modern ecological and environmental thought

There are numerous "comparative surveys" of the differing analyses of the environmental crisis. A good starting point is David Pepper's The Roots of Modern Environmentalism (Routledge, London, 1989). Caroline Marchant's collection Ecology (Humanities Press, New Jersey, 1994) provides a representative selection of the various trends, while Joan Martínez-Alier's Ecological Economics: Energy, Environment and Society (Basil Blackwell, Cambridge, 1987) unearths forgotten traditions of ecological analysis.

C. Mainstream environmentalism

Works advocating one or other variant of green capitalism are appearing all the time. Notable recent texts include Paul Hawken, The Ecology of Commerce: How Business Can Save the Planet (Weidenfeld and Nicholson, London, 1993); Frances Cairncross, Green, Inc., Guide to Business and the Environment (Earthscan Publications, London, 1995); Ernst von Weizsäcker, Amory B. Lovins and L. Hunter Lovins, Factor Four: Doubling Wealth — Halving Resource Use (Report to the Club of Rome, Allen and Unwin, Sydney, 1997) and Michael Carley and Philippe Spapens, Sharing the World: Sustainable Living and Global Equity in the 21st Century (Earthscan, London, 1998).

D. Alternative analyses

The two main streams of alternative analysis of the environmental crisis are ecological Marxism and social ecology, which has anarchist roots. For the former see the works of Barry Commoner and K. William Kapp. For the latter, see the works of Murray Bookchin, such as the Philosophy of Social Ecology (Black Rose Books, Montreal, 1990).

E. State of the environment movement

Tom Athanasiou's Slow Reckoning: the Ecology of a Divided Planet (Vintage, London, 1998), with its perceptive analysis of the trends and contradictions of contemporary environmentalism, is the best starting point.

F. Marx and Engels on ecology

Marx and Engels' writings on the humanity-nature relationship are scattered throughout their work. Howard Parsons has collected all the relevant texts in Marx and Engels on Ecology (Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut, 1977).

G. Soviet writing on ecology

In today's "post-communist" world it is often forgotten that ecology was a flourishing discipline in the Soviet Union of the 1920s and again, although to a lesser degree, in the post-Stalin period. The best introduction is the work of Igor Laptev, available in Progress Publishers editions.

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