Notes

Preface

1 Quoted in Sharon Beder, Global Spin, the Corporate Assault on Environmentalism, Scribe Publications, Melbourne, p. 22.

2 Ernest A. Lowe and Robert J. Harris, "Taking Climate Change Seriously: British Petroleum's Business Strategy", Corporate Environmental Strategy, Winter 1998.

3 Quoted in Bjõrn Stigson, "The Business Charter for Sustainable Development", in Felix Dodds (ed.), The Way Forward: Beyond Agenda 21, Earthscan, London, 1997, p. 121.

4 Quoted in Lester R. Brown and Christopher Flavin, "A New Economy for a New Century", Lester R. Brown and Christopher Flavin (eds.), State of the World 1999, Earthscan, London, 1999, p. 18.

5 Quoted in Tom Athanasiou, Slow Reckoning: The Ecology of a Divided Planet, Vintage, London, 1998, p. 234.

6 Paul Hawken, The Ecology of Commerce: How Business Can Save the Planet, Weidenfeld and Nicholson, London, 1993.

7 Frances Cairncross, Green, Inc., Guide to Business and the Environment, Earthscan Publications, London, 1995.

8 William Ashworth, The Economy of Nature: Rethinking the Connections Between Ecology and Economics, Houghton Mifflin, New York, 1995.

9 Ernst von Weizsäcker, Amory B. Lovins and L. Hunter Lovins, Factor Four: Doubling Wealth — Halving Resource Use (Report to the Club of Rome), Allen and Unwin, Sydney, 1997.

10 Op. cit., p. 144.

11 Michael Carley and Philippe Spapens, Sharing the World: Sustainable Living and Global Equity in the 21st Century, Earthscan, London, 1998.

12 World Resources Institute, World Resources, 1994-95, Oxford University Press, New York, 1994, p. 224.

13 Nitin Desai, "Perspectives on the Future from the UN: The First Steps from Promise to Performance", in Felix Dodds (ed.), op. cit., Earthscan, London, 1997, p. 223.

14 Norm Dixon, "Antarctic Meltdown: Can We Stop it in Time?", Green Left Weekly, No. 366, June 2, 1999.

15 Worldwatch Institute media release, January 10, 1998.

16 United National Environment Program, Global State of the Environment Report 1997, United Nations, New York, 1997, p. 3 (emphasis added).

17 Peter Dykstra of Greenpeace, cited in Sharon Beder, op. cit., p. 213.

18 David Malin Roodman, "Building a Sustainable Society", in State of the World 1999, p. 170.

19 Lester R. Brown et al., Saving the Planet: How to Shape an Environmentally Sustainable Global Economy, Worldwatch Institute, Earthscan, London, 199, p. 115.

20 Hans-Magnus Enzensberger, "A Critique of Political Ecology", New Left Review, No. 84, March-April, 1974, p. 26.

21 Barry Commoner, The Closing Circle: Nature, Man and Technology, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, Chapter 12, 1971.

22 The German SPD-Green coalition decided in November 1998 to impose eco-taxes that would account for 2.9 per cent of all German government revenue. David Malin Roodman, op. cit., p. 174.

23 John Bellamy Foster, The Vulnerable Planet: a Short Economic History of the Environment, Monthly Review Press, New York, 1994, p. 33.

24 Saul Landau, in Capitalism, Nature, Socialism, Vol. 10, No. 2, Issue 38, June 1999, pp. 1-2.

25 "Comunicación a las Jornadas de Ecología y Política", quoted in Jorge Riechmann and Francisco Fernández Buey, Trabajar Sin Destruir: Trabajadores, Sindicatos y Ecologismo, Ediciones HOAC, Madrid, 1998, p. 33.

26 Dave Foreman in Steve Chase (ed.), Defending the Earth: a Dialogue Between Murray Bookchin and Dave Foreman, South End Press, Boston, 1991, pp. 51-52.

27 For a perceptive analysis see John Bellamy Foster, "The Limits of Environmentalism Without Class: Lessons from the Ancient Forest Struggle in the Pacific Northwest", in Capitalism, Nature, Socialism, Issue 13, March 1993.

28 Phil Shannon, "Red and Green", Frontline, No. 35, 1996, pp. 11-12.

29 V. I. Lenin, State and Revolution, in Collected Works, Vol. 25, Progress Publishers, Moscow, p. 402

30 Karl Marx and Frederick Engels, Collected Works, Vol. 39, p. 62.

31 See, notably, the work of Joan Martínez-Alier. For example, Ecological Economics: Energy, Environment and Society, chapter 15, "Political Epilogue" , where Martínez-Alier outlines his "ecological neo-narodnism". More generally ecology has been conceived as a "new paradigm" that nurtures such views as deep ecology, bioregionalism and rehabitation. See Carolyn Merchant (ed.) Ecology, Humanities Press, New Jersey, 1994, in the series "Key Concepts in Critical Theory". Chapter Five discusses this issue.

32 Jonathon Porritt: "The politics of ecology [is] the only expression of genuine opposition to the dominant world order." Seeing Green, Oxford, 1984, pages 216-217.

33 For a fuller explanation of the DSP position on these issues see What is the DSP? and The Program of the Democratic Socialist Party, both published by New Course Publications, Sydney, Australia.

34 See Meredith and Verity Burgmann, Green Bans, Red Union, University of New South Wales Press, Sydney, 1999.

I. The threat to human survival

35 J. Scurlock and D. Hall, "The Carbon Cycle", New Scientist, 2 November 1991.

36 Data from Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 1995 Report, cited in Lester R. Brown et al., State of the World 1998, Worldwatch Institute, Earthscan, London 1998, p. 113, and Linda Starke (ed.) Vital Signs 1998-1999, Worldwatch Institute, Earthscan, London, 1999, p. 68.

37 Linda Starke (ed.), Vital Signs1997-1998 and 1998-1999, throughout.

38 Molly O'Meara, "Acid Rain Threats Vary", in Vital Signs 1998-1999, pp. 134-5.

39 See various issues of World Resources, produced by the World Resources Institute, the United Nations Environment Program, the United Nations Development Program and the World Bank, Oxford University Press, New York and Oxford.

40 Ed Barbier, "Tropical Deforestation", in Blueprint 2: Greening the World Economy, Earthscan, London, 1991.

41 Gary Gardner, "Preserving Agricultural Resources", in Lester R Brown et al., State of the World 1996, p. 89.

42 Vital Signs 1998-1999, p. 44.

43 Arnold. L. Aspelin, Pesticide Industry Sales and Usage, 1994 and 1995, Market Estimates, US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, Washington D.C., August 1997.

44 Lester R. Brown et al, Vital Signs 1996-1997, Earthscan, London, 1996, p. 20.

45 World Resources, 1996-97, p. xii and State of the World, various.

46 Lester R. Brown et al., State of the World 1999, pp. 12-13.

47 Anne Platt McGinn, "Charting a New Course for Oceans", in State of the World 1999, p. 85.

48 Op. cit., p. 79.

49 World Resources, 1990-91,throughout.

50 Kevin T. Pickering and Lewis A. Owen, An Introduction to Global Environmental Issues, Routledge, London, 1994, p.151.

51 John Tuxill and Chris Bright, "Losing Strands in the Web of Life", State of the World 1998, p. 41. One biodiversity expert, Edward O. Wilson, calculates species loss at 27,000 a year. See Edward O. Wilson, The Diversity of Life, Harvard University Press, Harvard, 1992, pp. 278-80.

52 Jonathon Baillie and Brian Groombridge, (eds.), 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals, World Conservation Union (IUCN), Gland, Switzerland.

53 Anne Platt McGinn, op. cit., p. 83.

54 Lester R. Brown et al., Saving the Planet: How to Shape an Environmentally Sustainable Global Economy, Worldwatch Institute, Earthscan, London, 1992, p. 11.

55 World Resources, 1994-1995, p. 216.

56 Gary Cohen and John O'Connor, (eds.), Fighting Toxics, Island Press, Washington, 1990, pp. 12-15 and 271-273.

57 Examples taken from Michael Carley and Philippe Spapens, Sharing the World: Sustainable Living and Global Equity in the 21st Century, Earthscan, London, 1998, pp. 24-25.

58 Peter M. Vitousek et al., "Human Appropriation of the Products of Photosynthesis", Bioscience, June 1986.

59 F. Schmidt-Bleek, Carnoules Declaration of the Factor Ten Club, Wuppertal Institute, 1994, p. 37.

60 World Resources, 1994-1995, p. 214.

61 Gavin Wright, "The Origins of American Industrial Success, 1879-1940", American Economic Review, Vol. 80, No. 4, September 1990.

62 World Commission on Environment and Development, Our Common Future, (commonly known as the Brundtland Report), Oxford University Press, Oxford, p. 169.

63 World Energy Council, Energy Data Centre, Global Energy Scenarios To 2050 Beyond, on <http://worldenergy.org>, viewed 9 August 1999.

64 Lester R. Brown et al., State of the World 1999, p. 15.

65 Tom Athanasiou, Slow Reckoning: the Ecology of a Divided Planet, Vintage, London, 1998, p. 124.

66 Lester R. Brown et al, Saving the Planet, p. 115.

67 World Bank and The Military Balance 1997-98, cited in Vital Signs 1998-1999, p. 75 and p. 115.

68 Barry Commoner, The Closing Circle, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1974, p. 285.

II. Symptoms and causes of the environmental crisis

69 World Bank, Human Development Report, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1997, Table 4, pp. 220-221.

70 Paul Ehrlich, Population, Resources, Environment — Issues in Human Ecology, W.H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco, 1972, p. 1.

71 T.R. Malthus, Essay on the Principle of Population, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1989, Vol. 1, pp. 304.

72 Ibid., Vol. 2, pp. 127-128 (emphasis in original).

73 Ibid., Vol. 2, p. 128.

74 Garret Hardin, "The Tragedy of the Commons", in Science , Vol. 162 (1968), pp. 1243-1248).

75 Herman E. Daly and John B. Cobb, For the Common Good: Redirecting the Economy Toward Community, the Environment, and a Sustainable Future, Beacon Press, Boston, 1989.

76 World Bank, Population Change and Economic Development, World Bank, Washington, p. 51.

77 United States Department of Agriculture data base, as reported in Vital Signs 1998-1999, p. 28.

78 United Nation Development Program, Human Development Report, Oxford, 1997, p. 5.

79 Document of Cuban delegation, Rio Earth Summit, in Fidel Castro, Tomorrow is Too Late, Ocean Press, Melbourne, 1993, p. 11.

80 Our Common Future, p. 12-13.

81 Food and Agricultural Organisation, Assessment of the Current World Food Security Situation and Medium Term Review, Rome, 1995.

82 See World Resources, 1996-97, Chapter 10.

83 Barry Commoner, op. cit., p. 255.

84 World Resources 1996-97, pp.173ff. and 273ff.

85 World Resources 1996-97, pp. 326-327.

86 Anne and Paul Ehrlich, The Population Explosion, Simon and Schuster Australia, Sydney, 1990, p. 134.

87 Donella and Dennis Meadows, Jørgen Sanders and William Behrens, The Limits to Growth, Universe Books, New York, 1972.

88 Nathan Keyfitz, "The Growing Human Population", Scientific American, September 1989, p. 73.

89 Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, OECD Environmental Data, Paris, 1996.

90 Barry Commoner, op. cit., pp. 144-145.

91 John Esposito, Vanishing Air, Grossman Publishers, New York, 1970, p. 108.

92 Barry Commoner, op. cit., p. 270.

93 Op. cit., p. 188-189.

94 Ernst von Weizsäcker, Amory B. Lovins and L. Hunter Lovins, Factor Four: Doubling Wealth — Halving Resource Use, Allen and Unwin, Sydney, 1997.

95 Karl Marx and Frederick Engels, The German Ideology, in Karl Marx and Frederick Engels, Collected Works, Vol. 5, p. 31.

96 Karl Marx, Capital, Vol. 1, Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, 1976, p. 283 and p. 290.

97 Karl Marx, Wage Labour and Capital, in Selected Works, Vol. 1, Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1989, p. 167.

98 Karl Marx and Frederick Engels, The German Ideology, p. 31.

99 Frederick Engels, The Part Played by Labour in the Transition from Ape to Man, (from The Dialectics of Nature), Karl Marx and Frederick Engels, Collected Works, Vol. 25, pp. 460-461.

100 Op. cit., pp. 462-463.

101 Karl Marx, Capital ,Vol. 1, pp. 637-638.

102 Barry Commoner, op. cit., p. 287.

103 Pierre Crosson and Norman Rosenberg, "Strategies for Agriculture", Scientific American, September 1989, p. 78.

104 Our Common Future, throughout.

105 Jim MacNeill, "Strategies for Sustainable Economic Development", Scientific American, September 1989, p. 111.

106 William Ruckelshaus, "Towards a Sustainable World", Scientific American, September 1989, p. 115.

107 Op. cit., p. 117.

108 Op. cit., p. 117.

109 Op. cit., p. 118.

110 Goldman, M. The Spoils of Progress: Environmental Pollution in the Soviet Union, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachussetts, 1972, p. 7.

111 Sandra Postel, "Forging a Sustainable Water Strategy", in Lester R Brown et al., State of the World 1996, Earthscan, London, 1997, p. 47.

112 David Pearce and Jeremy Warford, World Without End,: Economics, Environment and Sustainable Development, Oxford University Press/The World Bank, Oxford, 1993, p. 219.

113 USSR State Committee for the Protection of Nature, Report on the State of the Environment in the USSR 1988, Moscow, 1989, cited in Lester R. Brown et al, Saving the Planet, p. 27.

114 James O'Connor, "Political Economy of Ecology", Capitalism, Nature, Socialism, Issue 3, November 1989, p. 93ff.

115 James O'Connor, Natural Causes: Essays in Ecological Marxism, The Guildford Press, New York, 1998, p. 257.

116 David Malin Roodman, "Harnessing the Market for the Environment", in State of the World 1996, p. 174.

117 Frances Cairncross, Green Inc., Earthscan, London, 1995, p. 128.

118 Igor Laptev, The Planet of Reason, Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1977, p. 72.

119 Andreas Bernsdorff and Katherine Totten, Romania: the Toxic Assault, Waste Imports 1986-92, Greenpeace Germany, Hamburg, August 1992.

120 "Are Russia's Forests Threatened?", in World Resources 1996-97, p. 206.

121 Quoted in Douglas Weiner, The History of the Conservation Movement in Russia and the USSR from its Origin to the Stalin Period, Ph. D. thesis, Colombia University, 1983. In Arran Gare, "Soviet Environmentalism: the Path Not Taken", Capitalism, Nature, Socialism, Vol. 4, No. 4, Issue 16, p. 87.

122 M. Lemechev, "Without Degrading Nature", Moscow News, February 14, 1988, p. 8. Cited in Is Capitalism Sustainable?, p. 47.

123 Barry Commoner, op. cit., p. 280.

124 Roger Manser, The Squandered Dividend: the Free Market and the Environment in Eastern Europe, Earthscan, London, 1993, p. 71.

125 Op. cit., throughout.

126 Op. cit., p. 145.

III. The environment movement

127 Frederick Engels, Anti-Duhring, in Karl Marx and Frederick Engels, Collected Works, Vol. 25, p. 22.

128 Cited in Joan Martínez-Alier, Ecological Economics: Energy, Environment and Society, Basil Blackwell, Oxford, 1987, p. 75.

129 Frederick Engels, Dialectics of Nature, Karl Marx and Frederick Engels, Collected Works, Vol. 25, p. 584.

130 John Muir, "The Wild Parks and Forest Reservations of the West", Atlantic Monthly, LXXXI, p. 483.

131 Karl Marx, Grundrisse, Penguin, Harmondsworth, 1973, pp. 407-410.

132 Cited in John Bellamy Foster and Fred Magdoff, "Liebig, Marx and the Depletion of Soil Fertility: Relevance for Today's Agriculture", Monthly Review, Vol. 50, No. 3, p. 39.

133 Greenpeace USA, The Greenpeace Book of Greenwash, Greenpeace, Washington, 1992, p. 1.

134 Sharon Beder, Global Spin: the Corporate Assault on Environmentalism, Scribe, Melbourne, 1997, p. 129.

135 World Resources, 1994-95, p. 217.

136 "Banana Laws and Potato Heads", in Rachel's Health and Environment Weekly, Issue 481, February 15, 1996.

137 Björn Stigson, "The Business Charter for Sustainable Development", in Felix Dodds (ed.), The Way Forward: Beyond Agenda 21, Earthscan, London, 1997, p. 117.

138 Francis Cairncross, op. cit., p. 206.

139 Tom Athanasiou, op. cit., p. 236.

140 Lester R. Brown et al, Saving the Planet, p. 69.

141 Op. cit., p. 180.

142 Barry Commoner, Making Peace with the Planet, Pantheon, New York, 1990, p. 20.

143 William Ashworth, The Economy of Nature, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1995, p. 32.

144 Ibid., p. 40.

145 Ibid., p. 16.

146 Al Gore, Earth in the Balance: Ecology and Human Spirit, Houghton Mifflin, London, 1992, p. 280.

147 Ibid., p. 295.

148 Ibid., p. 297.

149 Betsy Hartmann, "Consensus and Contradiction on the Road to Cairo", in Women's Global Network for Reproductive Rights Newsletter No. 47, July-September 1994, p. 10.

150 Our Common Future, pp. 22-23.

IV. Currents in ecological thought

151 Daniel Faber, The Political Ecology of American Capitalism: New Challenges for the Environmental Justice Movement, forthcoming.

152 Robert Bullard, "Environmental Racism and the Environmental Justice Movement", in Caroline Marchant (ed.), Ecology, Humanities Press, New Jersey, 1994, p. 254.

153 The Nation, April 18, 1994.

154 Quoted in Barry Commoner, Making Peace with the Planet, p. 177.

155 Michael Rothschild, Bionomins: The Inevitability of Capitalism, Henry Holt, New York, 1990. Cited in Tom Athanasiou, op. cit., p.261.

156 E. F. Schumacher, Small is Beautiful: Economics as if People Really Mattered, Abacus, London, 1973, p. [check]

157 Murray Bookchin, "Ecology and Revolutionary Thought", in S. Blau and J. van B. Rodenbeck (eds.), The House We Live In, Macmillan, New York, 1971, pp. 442-443.

158 Murray Bookchin, The Ecology of Freedom, Cheshire Books, Palo Alto, 1982, p. 3.

159 Op. cit., p. 357.

160 Op. cit., p. 276.

161 Ted Trainer, Abandon Affluence, Zed Books, London, 1989, p. 261.

162 James Lovelock, "Gaia", from Planet Earth, Autumn 1986, p. 22.

163 James Lovelock, The Ages of Gaia, Oxford University Press, 1988, p. 211.

164 Edward Goldsmith, "The Religion of a Stable Society", Man-Environment Systems, 8, 1978.

165 Native Forest Council, Forest Voice, II, 2, 1990. Cited in John Bellamy Foster, "The Limits of Environmentalism Without Class: Lessons from the Ancient Forest Struggle in the Pacific Northwest", Capitalism, Nature, Socialism, Vol. 4, No. 1, Issue 13, March 1993, p.29.

V. Political consequences of the environmental crisis

166 By 1999 the Greens (WA) had lost all representation in the Australian senate.

167 For further analysis of the Green parties, see Lisa Macdonald, Green Politics at an Impasse, Democratic Socialist Party, 1996.

VI. Towards an environmentally sustainable world

168 Alexander Arbatov, Sergei Bogolyukov, Leonid Sobolev, Ecology, Novosti, Moscow, 1989, p. 48.

169 ibid., pp. 52-53.

170 ibid., p. 53.

171 See Ernst von Weiszäcker et al, op.cit., pp. 29-41.

Appendix: Can green taxes save the world?

172 A. C. Pigou, The Economics of Welfare, Macmillan, London, 1932.

173 For a succinct summary see David Pearce (ed.), Blueprint 2: Greening the World Economy, Earthscan, London, 1991, pp. 1-3.

174 Green taxes, or eco-taxes, come in many shapes and sizes. There are effluent charges and licenses, resource and environment user fees; fines for polluters; rebates; "feebates" which use funds collected from those operating below a given environmental standard to reward those operating better than standard; and tradable emission permits. A general distinction should be made between green taxes, which are designed to reduce pollution and resource depletion to some degree, and charges, whose aim is restricted to raising sufficient funds to cover the administration of particular programs.

175 David Malin Roodman, "Harnessing the Market for the Environment", in Lester R. Brown et al, State of the World 1996, Earthscan Publications, London, 1996, p. 169.

176 Lester R. Brown and Jennifer Mitchell, "Building a New Economy", in State of the World 1998, Earthscan, London, 1998, p. 181.

177 US President's Council on Sustainable Development, Sustainable America: A New Consensus for Prosperity, Opportunity and a Healthy Environment, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1996.

178 European Commission, Growth, Competitiveness, Employment: the Challenges and Way Forward into the 21st Century, Bulletin of the European Communities, Supplement 6/93, European Commission, Brussels. Cited in David Gee, "Economic Tax Reform in Europe: Opportunities and Obstacles", in Timothy O'Riordan (ed.), Ecotaxation, Earthscan, London, 1997.

179 Timothy O'Riordan (ed.), op. cit., p. 325.

180 Op. cit., p. 326.

181 Ernst von Weizsäcker, Amory B. Lovins and L. Hunter Lovins, op. cit., p. 144 (emphasis added).

182 See also WBMG, Tax Reform for Sustainable Development: Roundtable Discussions, WBMG Environmental Communications, London, 1995.

183 That is, the higher the price of fuel the less it is consumed.

184 Ernst von Weizsäcker, Amory B. Lovins and L. Hunter Lovins, op. cit., p.202.

185 Op. cit., p. 204.

186 See Denis Meadows, Donella Meadows and Jurgen Randers, Beyond the Limits: Confronting Global Collapse, Envisioning a Sustainable Future, Post Mills VT, Chelsea Green, 1992.

187 Ernst von Weizsäcker, Amory B. Lovins and L. Hunter Lovins, op. cit., p. 268.

188 Since 1992 there have been over a dozen studies on the likely effects of shifting parts of the tax burden from "people to things".

189 Paul Ekins, "On the Dividends from Environmental Taxation", in Timothy O'Riordan (ed.), op. cit., pp. 151-155.

190 David Malin Roodman, State of the World 1999, p.180.

191 David Malin Roodman, op.cit., p.171.

192 When a green tax is struck, the rate per unit of resource depleted or pollution emitted is fixed, and the actual impact on the quantity of the resource used or pollution emitted allowed to vary. With a tradable permit, the quantity of the resource used or pollution permitted is fixed and the price of meeting this target varies.

193 Scott Barrett, "Global Warming: Economics of a Carbon Tax", in David Pearce (ed.), op. cit., p. 40. See also David Pearce, "Economics and the Global Environmental Challenge", in The Earthsccn Reader in Environmental Economics, pp. 401-2 and the 1995 Danish Board of Technology seminar on green taxes, available on <http://www.ing.dk/tekraad/udgiv/963/963all.htm>.

194 Timothy O'Riordan, op. cit., p. 77.

195 Paul Ekins, op. cit., in Timothy O'Riordan, op. cit., p. 131 and p. 151.

196 T. H. Tietenberg, op. cit., pp. 275-276.

197 OECD, Environment and Taxation: the Case of the Netherlands, Sweden and the United States, OECD, Paris, 1994. See summary on <http://www.rec.org/REC/Publications/PaperSeries/Paper1/experience1.html>.

198 Robert W. Hahn, "Economic Prescriptions for Environmental Problems: How the Patient Followed the Doctor's Orders", Journal of Economic Perspectives, 1989, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 95-114.

199 Jane Powell and Amelia Craighill, "The UK Landfill Tax", in Timothy O'Riordan (ed.), op. cit., pp. 304-320.

200 Jean-Philippe Barde, "Environmental Taxation: Experience in OECD Countries", in Timothy O'Riordan, op. cit., p. 236.

201 Jon O'Riordan, "The British Colombia Sustainability Fund", in Timothy O'Riordan, op. cit., p.p. 322-323.

202 John Millar and John Moffet, The Price of Mobility: Uncovering the Hidden Costs of Transportation, Natural Resources Defense Council, 1993.

203 G. Tyler Miller, Living in the Environment, Wadsworth, Belmont, California, p. 201.

204 Bent Sørensen, "Impacts of Energy Use", in Mark Diesendorf and Clive Hamilton (eds.), Human Ecology, Human Economy, Allen and Unwin, Sydney, 1997, pp. 259-265.

205 Figures from Barry Commoner, op. cit., pp. 89-90.

206 Scott Barrett, op. cit., p. 40.

207 Jean-Philippe Barde, op. cit., p. 243 (writing in a personal capacity).

208 Judith Rees, "Toward Implementation Realities", in Timothy O'Riordan (ed.), op. cit., p. 298.

209 New York Times, November 3, 1997.

210 Noah Walley and Bradley Whitehead, "It's Not Easy Being Green", Harvard Business Review, May-June 1994, pp. 46-52.

211 Peter Newell, "A Changing Landscape of Diplomatic Conflict: The Politics of Climate Change Post-Rio", in Felix Dodds (ed.), op. cit., p. 40.

212 David Malin Roodman, op. cit., p. 178.

213 See Lester R. Brown et al, Vital Signs 1997-1998, pp. 60-61.

214 World Resources Institute, World Resources 1996-97, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1996, p. 281.

215 Ibid., p. 279.

216 Ernst von Weizsäcker, Amory B. Lovins and L. Hunter Lovins, op. cit., p. 200.

217 Francis Cairncross, op. cit., p. 132.

218 Daniel Faber, op. cit., p. 21.

219 Tom Athanasiou, op. cit., pp. 236-237.

220 Ernst von Weizsäcker, Amory B. Lovins and L. Hunter Lovins, op. cit., p. 139.

221 Op. cit., p.142.

222 Ibid., p. 208.

223 United Nations Development Program, Human Development Report 1997, Table 42, p. 219.

224 See Christopher Flavin and Seth Dunn, op. cit., p. 115.

225 Gary Gardner and Payal Sampat, op. cit., p. 51 and Lester R. Brown and Christopher Flavin State of the World 1999, p. 21.

226 Michael Carley and Philippe Spapens, op. cit., p. 108.

227 Gary Gardner and Payal Sampat, op. cit., p. 45 and Michael Carley and Philippe Spapens, op. cit., p. 32.

228 Tom Athanasiou, op. cit., p. 139.

229 Hilary F. French, op. cit., p. 157.

230 According to the approach to measuring ecological impact pioneered by Friedrich Schmidt-Bleek, known as Material Impact Per Service (MIPS), manufacturing the average car requires more than 1520 tonnes to be moved in the processes of metal mining, refining, shipping, plastics and glass manufacturing and car assembly. See Ernst von Weizsäcker, Amory B. Lovins and L. Hunter Lovins, op. cit., pp. 237-45.

231 Vital Signs 1998-1999, p. 86.

232 Op. cit., p. 119.

233 Robert W. Hahn, op. cit., p. 106.

234 Cited in Tom Athanasiou, op. cit., p. 178.

235 Hilary F. French, "Assessing Private Capital Flows to Developing Countries", in State of the World 1998, pp. 157 and 166.

236 See J. M. Dean, "Trade and the Environment: a Survey of the Literature", in P. Low (ed.), International Trade and the Environment, World Bank Discussion paper 159, World Bank, Washington, 1992.

237 Jane Powell and Amelia Craighill, op. cit., p. 314.

238 Christopher Flavin and Seth Dunn, op. cit. p. 119.

239 Ernst von Weizsäcker, Amory B. Lovins and L. Hunter Lovins, op. cit., p. 283.

240 Caroline LeQuesne and Charles Arden Clarke, "Trade and Sustainable Development", in Felix Dodds (ed.), op. cit., p. 177.

241 David Malin Roodman, op. cit., p. 177. Anne Platt McGinn, "Charting a New Course for Oceans", in State of the World 1999, p. 92.

242 Jean-Philippe Barde, op. cit., p. 242.

243 Steven Shrybman, An Environment Guide to the World Trade Organisation, 1997, available on <http://www.sierraclub.ca/national/trade-env/env-guide-wto.html>.

244 James O'Connor, "Is Sustainable Capitalism Possible?, in Martin O'Connor (ed.), Is Capitalism Sustainable: Political Economy and the Politics of Ecology, Guilford, New York, 1994.

245 James Poterba, "Tax Policy to Combat Global Warming: On Designing a Carbon Tax," in Rudiger Dornbusch and James Poterba (eds.), Global Warming: Economic Policy Responses, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1991.

246 M. Pearson and S. Smith, The European Carbon Tax: An Assessment of the European Commissions, The Institute of Fiscal Studies, London, 1991.

247 Tom Athanasiou, op. cit., pp. 274-275.

248 Judith Rees, op. cit., p. 289.

249 Peter Weber, "Protecting Ocean Fisheries and Jobs", in Lester R. Brown (ed.), State of the World 1995, Earthscan, London 1995, pp. 32-3.

250 United Nations, Commission on Sustainable Development, "Chairman's summary of the high-level segment of the sixth session", paragraph 22.

251 Peter Weber, op. cit., p. 57.

252 Aaron Sachs, "Upholding Human Rights and Environmental Justice", in Lester R. Brown (ed.), State of the World 1996, p. 144.

253 Michael Carley and Philippe Spapens, op. cit., pp. 59-60.

254 Anil Agarwal and Sunita Narain, Global Warming in an Unequal World: a Case of Environmental Colonialism, Centre for Science and Development, New Delhi, 1991.

255 Swedish Ministry of the Environment, The Swedish Experience: Taxes and Changes in Environmental Policy, Ministry of the Environment, Stockholm, 1994.

256 J. Whalley and R. Wigle, "The International Incidence of Carbon Taxes", in R. Dornbusch and J. Poterba (eds.), Global Warming: Economic Policy Responses, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1991, pp. 233-263.

257 Paul Ekins, op. cit., p. 156 .

258 OECD, Environment and Taxation: the Cases of the Netherlands, Sweden and the United States, OECD, Paris, 1994, p.57.

259 David Malin Roodman, Worldwatch Institute media release on "Getting the Signals Right: Tax Reform to Protect the Environment and the Economy", 10 May 1997.

260 See Al Gore, Earth in the Balance: Ecology and Human Spirit, Houghton Mifflin, London, 1992.

261 Vital Signs 1997-1998, pp. 108-109.

262 Tom Athanasiou, op. cit., p. 191.

263 Christopher Flavin, "Facing Up to the Risks of Climate Change", in Lester R. Brown (ed.), op. cit., p. 33.

264 OECD Environmental Data, Compendium 1997, OECD, Paris, 1997.

265 Barry Commoner, op. cit., p. 285.

266 Joaquín Araujo, "Environmental employment", El País Sunday Supplement, 4 December 1994, cited in Jorge Riechmann and Francisco Fernández Buey, Trabajar sin Destruir: Trabajadores, Sindicatos y Ecologismo, Ediciones HOAC, Madrid, 1998, p. 222.

267 Noah Walley and Bradley Whitehead, op. cit. p. 50.

268 Thomas C. Schelling, "Some Economics of Global Warming", American Economic Review, Volume 83, Number 1, March 1992, pp. 1-11.

269 Ernst von Weizsäcker, Amory B. Lovins and L. Hunter Lovins, op. cit., p. 178.

270 Ibid., p. 182.

271 The discount rate is the percentage amount by which we reduce the value of a flow of income between two time periods, by convention usually a year. If a dollar earned in one year is reckoned to be worth 95 cents today, the discount rate is said to be five per cent (actually 5.26 per cent, according to the discounting formula {(1/(1 + r)} = 0.95, where r is the discount rate). Usually, the discount rate used is the real discount rate, which reflects anticipated inflation. The higher the discount rate, the lower the value of future income in present terms. High discount rates also favour faster resource depletion, for the obvious reason that future income is valued less than income today. The greater the poverty of a society, the greater the pressure of subsistence, the higher the rate of discount that is being applied. The rule expressing the relation between the discount (or interest) rate and the rate of depletion of a resource is known as the Gray-Hotelling rule. See any text on cost-benefit analysis for a fuller explanation.

272 Gavin Gilchrist, op. cit., pp. 56-57.

273 Cited in Gavin Gilchrist, op. cit., p. 57.

274 Solar energy accounts for less than 0.5 per cent of the power generated in the US today, instead of the two to five per cent projected in the late 1970s. And, despite recent increases

in the uptake of renewable energy, such sources still account for less than one per cent of global energy output. See State of the World 1998, p. 116.

275 J. Martínez-Alier, De la Economia Ecológica al Ecologismo Popular, p. 41 (translated from Spanish).

276 Op. cit., p. 136. Other telling examples cited by Martínez-Alier come from Ecuador. For instance, indigenous Amazonian people are suing Texaco in the Federal Court of New York for deforestation and the destruction of their community life caused by that company's extraction of one billion barrels of oil between the early 1970s and 1990. Yet, while damages sought amount to $1.5 billion, the Ecuadorian government is looking to settle a damages agreement at around $15 million.

277 Frances Cairncross, op. cit., p. 28.

278 J. Martínez-Alier, Ecological Economics, Basil Blackwell, Oxford, p. xiv.

279 A 1986 study of emissions permit trading by R. Hahn and G. Hester found that there was a sizeable ($12 billion dollar) saving for companies operating under the US Clean Air Act but "insignificant environmental quality impact". See Lewis Owen and Tim Unwin (eds.), Environmental Management: Readings and Case Studies, Blackwell, Oxford, 1997, p. 403.

280 Op. cit.

281 The full name is the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer, signed in September 1987.

282 Sharon Beder, op. cit., pp. 114-115.

283 See Rene Bowser, "History of the Montreal Protocol's Ozone Fund", Analysis and Perspective, Bureau of National Affairs, Washington, 20 November, 1991, p. 637. Cited in Tom Anastasiou, op. cit., p. 65. The CFC Multilateral Fund, a joint initiative of the World Bank and various UN agencies, has allocated $695 million to projects in 111 developing countries to speed CFC phase-out.

284 Michael Carley and Philippe Spapens, op. cit., p. 20.

285 A recent example is the 1997 proposal of the Australia Institute whose proposed $A23 per ton carbon tax, permitting the elimination of payroll tax, would reduce carbon dioxide emissions by a totally inadequate 11.7 per cent in the short run and be "closer to 40 per cent" only by 2010 — assuming the modelling is accurate. At the same time it would produce immediate price rises of around seven per cent for petrol, 17 per cent for gas and 21 per cent for electricity (Clive Hamilton, Tor Hundloe and John Quiggin, Ecological Tax Reform in Australia, The Australia Institute, Discussion Paper Number 10, April 1997.)

286 Karl Marx, Capital, Vol. 1., Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, 1981, pp.637-638.

287 Jason Abbott, "Export Processing Zones and the Developing World", Contemporary Review, Vol. 270, No. 1576 (1997).

288 Christopher Flavin and Seth Dunn, "Reinventing the Energy System", in Lester R. Brown et al (eds.) State of the World 1999, pp. 31-4.

289 Martin I. Hoffert et al., "Energy Implications of Future Stabilisation of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Content", Nature, 29 October 1998.

290 The Biodiversity Convention "was originally proposed as a measure to preserve plant and animal life. But the real issue quickly became the exact opposite: how living organisms could be commercially exploited, and who should have patent rights. The treaty that was finally agreed was more about commerce than about conservation." David Lascelles and Christina Lamb, "A Game of Missed Opportunities", Financial Times, June 15, 1992, p. 14, cited in Tom Athanasiou, op. cit., p. 205.

291 Report of the Secretary-General, CSD, "Overall Progress Achieved Since UNCED", UN, 7-25 April 1997, paragraph 106.

292 William Kapp, Social Costs, Economic Development, and Environmental Disruption, University Press of America, London, 1983, p. 49 (emphasis added).

293 Jorge Riechmann and Francisco Fernández Buey, op. cit., pp. 17-18.

294 Barry Commoner, interviewed by Scientific American, June 23, 1997. See <http://www.sciam.com>.

295 The environmental crisis in the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe is analysed in Chapter 2, Part 4. However, we should be careful not to be swept away by claims of Western superiority here. Tom Athanasiou notes: "The terms of the standard East-West comparisons are badly misleading. Poland and Slovakia are about as `developed' as Turkey or Iran, and the Czech Republic and Hungary compare more fairly to Greece or Mexico than to the United States or Britain. This doesn't let the east off the hook for the damage its managers have done, but it does recast the issue: Greece, Turkey, and Mexico are no shining models of environment management. And if `the West' is taken as a whole — to include its service areas in Latin America, Africa and Southeast Asia — is it still so certain that its ecological record is superior in every way to that of the old East bloc?" Op. cit., page 124.

296 Address of V. Zazunbrin to the First Congress of Soviet Writers in 1926, cited in Martin Cock and Bill Hopwood, Global Warming: Socialism and the Environment, Militant Publications, Guildford, 1996, p. 150.

297 Commission on Sustainable Development, Sixth Session, 20 April to 1 May 1998, background paper 14, "Trade Unions", paragraph 17.

298 "The Lucas plan was rejected by all elements of the British establishment, including management, conservative trade unionists (one complaining that it would change British society!), academic `leaders' and most of the Labour Government, whose initial encouragement was sustained by only a few, like Tony Benn. This is unsurprising since it was revolutionary, proposing industrial restructuring in the interests of labour; redefining wealth by rediscovering William Morris' definition (`working cheerfully at producing the things we all genuinely want'); redefining, therefore, economic rationality; challenging labour vanguardist views that average workers can do little more than to describe their grievances; reasserting working people's right to associate (across unions); exposing the hidden values behind seemingly neutral, technical, `rational' management and challenging its right to manage, at least without accountability to workers: as Lucas workers at Shipley are reported to have said: `In our experience management is not a skill or craft. It is a command relationship, a habit picked up at public school, in the church or from the army. And we can well do without it". — David Pepper, Eco-socialism, Routledge, London and New York, 1993, page 239.

299 Daniel Faber, "La Liberación del Medio Ambiente: The Rise and Fall of Revolutionary Ecology in Nicaragua, 1979-1999", in Capitalism, Nature, Socialism, Issue 37, (Volume 10, Number 1), pp. 45-80.

300 Daniel Faber, op. cit., p. 58.

301 Barry Commoner, quoted in Peter Montague, Rachel's Hazardous Waste News, Number 390, 1994.

302 For a detailed account see Peter Rosset and Medea Benjamin, The Greening of the Revolution, Ocean Press, Australia, 1994.

303 Women are prominent in the leadership of Cuban science and have played an active role in the development of agroecology. The president of the Academy of Sciences, the director of the Institute of Ecology and Systematics, half the department heads in the institute, the director of the citrus experiment station and several of its leaders are women (author's note).

304 I once attended a meeting of biologists called by a local party group to discuss what to present at a national meeting on ecology and development. They were concerned about prejudices among economists who tend to dismiss ecological arguments as "idealistic", and were developing the counter-argument that it is the height of idealism to imagine that we can make a plan and nature will have to obey (author's note).

305 Some struggles will be more difficult than others. For example, the desire of government to promote tourism for foreign exchange is encouraging development plans along the coast which could ruin the offshore cays. The dependence on imported oil makes arguments about nuclear energy more difficult. The economic role of sugar and its institutionalisation in a separate ministry will make the shift to multipurpose farming more traumatic (author's note).

306 Richard Levins, "The Struggle for Ecological Agriculture in Cuba", Capitalism, Nature, Socialism No. 5, October 1990, pp. 125-126.

307 Judith Rees, op. cit., p. 289

308 Richard Levins, op. cit., p. 138.

309 Richard Levins, op. cit., page 140 (emphasis added).

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